The study uses municipal resolution data to provide a detailed insight into Catalan electoral geography. The results indicate that spatial patterns of nationalist affiliations are clustered, place-specific, and of a non-stationary character which disproves the nationalization thesis in all its three conceptualizations.
They may be obliged to operate loss-making activities where it is judged that social benefits are greater than social costs — for example, rural postal and transport services. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
If they are profitable, the profit is often used to finance other state services, such as social programs and government research, which can help lower the tax burden. Previous article in issue. The thesis is measured using the two traditional conceptualizations, and a new one which scrutinizes the Catalan-wide distribution of socio-spatial cleavages.
Although usually applied to the state-level, the nationalization thesis can do justice to the independence demands of regional nationalist movements as well. As a consequence, the concept of spatial modes within the Catalan territory is introduced.
In the United States, the Fifth Amendment requires just compensation if private property is taken for public use. December Learn how and when to remove this template message Nationalized industries, charged with operating in the public interest, may be under strong political and social pressures to give much more attention to externalities.
Examines spatial patterns of the nationalist political affiliations in Catalonia. According to this view, the nationalizing state is obligated under international law to pay the deprived party the full value of the property taken.
Socialist states have held that no compensation is due, based on the view that private ownership over socialized assets is illegitimate, exploitative, or a hindrance to further economic development. The nationalized industries do not normally borrow from the domestic market other than for short-term borrowing.
Since nationalized industries are state owned, the government is responsible for meeting any debts.
The methods involved include local and global statistical indexes for measuring variation in and distribution of electoral support, and linear and geographically weighted regressions which aim to identify predictor variables and, above all, their spatial non- stationarity.
Inthe United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution"Permanent Sovereignty over National Resources", which states that in the event of nationalization, Nationalization thesis owner "shall be paid appropriate compensation in accordance with international law". This section needs additional citations for verification.
In doing so, the UN rejected the traditional Calvo-doctrinal view and the Communist view. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. The objective is to evaluate the explanatory power of the nationalization thesis, which assumes convergence, uniformity, and nation-wide source of political alignments.
The government has recognized these social obligations and, in some cases, provides subsidies for such non-commercial operations. The term "appropriate compensation" represents a compromise between the traditional views, taking into account the need of developing countries to pursue reform, even without the ability to pay full compensation, and the Western concern for the protection of private property.
The opposing position has been taken mainly by developing countriesclaiming that the question of compensation should be left entirely up to the sovereign statein line with the Calvo Doctrine. Abstract This study examines the territorial cohesion of Catalonia in terms of political affiliations to Catalan nationalist parties in regional elections between and the impact of the nationalization of bauxite on jamaica's development a thesis submitted to the faculty of atlanta university in partial fulfillment of the requirements for.
This paper describes a test of the nationalization thesis that the American states have become similar in their policies and that variance in states' policies has decreased to the point where no significant policy differences remain. the relationship between human resource practices and employee retention in public organisations: an exploratory study conducted in the united arab emirates.
08/08) Writing Vocabulary for the Naturalization Test PEOPLE CIVICS PLACES MONTHS HOLIDAYS VERBS OTHER (FUNCTION) OTHER (CONTENT) Adams American Indians Alaska February Presidents’ Day can and blue.
Party Nationalization and Institutions Scott Morgenstern University of Pittsburgh Stephen M. Swindle Lee University Andrea Castagnola University of Pittsburgh Party nationalization has two distinct components: the ﬁrst is based on the degree of homogeneity in the geographic.
Proposes a new conceptualization to the nationalization thesis.
Employs spatial autocorrelation and GWR to advance research on the measurement methods of territorial nationalization. Identifies the place-specific character of nationalist support base along with the areas of weak nationalist affiliations.Download