In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly. What have been the reactions of school administrators to technological innovations in teaching the social sciences?
Many research studies call for the description of natural or man-made phenomena such as their form, structure, activity, change over time, relation to other phenomena, and so on. That is, analysis of the past as opposed to the future.
Descriptive research is mainly done when a researcher wants to gain a better understanding of a topic. When in-depth, narrative descriptions of small numbers of cases are involved, the research uses description as a tool to organize data into patterns that emerge during analysis.
Case Study Method Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of indviduals.
The Rysavy and Sales approach did not observe students in classrooms, but reported certain common findings that emerged through a literature search. Moore and Dwyer; Computers in Education: For example, one cannot try to draw conclusions that show cause and effect, because that is beyond the bounds of the statistics employed.
Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation. Because descriptive research spans both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, it brings the ability to describe events in greater or less depth as needed, to focus on various elements of different research techniques, and to engage quantitative statistics to organize information in meaningful ways.
This leads to greater ecological validity than laboratory observation, proponents say.
These data could then be used to recommend specific strategies for implementing computers or improving teaching strategies. Observation as Descriptive Research Method Another one of the types of descriptive research methods is utilizing observation to understand the behavior and characteristics of demographics.
For example, Galloway bases recommendations for teaching with computer analogies on descriptive data, and Wehrs draws reasonable conclusions about using expert systems to support academic advising. Case Study as Descriptive Research Case study as a descriptive research definition is used to understand a complex subject.
Essentials of behavioral research: As a way of offering guidance about the potential of technologies for distance education, that office has published a book called Linking for Learning: The methods of collecting data for descriptive research can be employed singly or in various combinations, depending on the research questions at hand.
Descriptive research is commonly used in the social sciences to study characteristics or phenomenons. Many of its findings are published in an annual volume called Digest of Educational Statistics.
The other problem is the person presenting the case might be biased leading to selectively choosing facts to support a certain conclusion.
In other words, descriptive research is also low on the "control or manipulation of research context" scale. Rysavy and Sales also apply a descriptive approach to study the role of group collaboration for working at computers.
There are two serious problems with case studies — expectancy effects and atypical individuals. This article will briefly describe each of these methods, their advantages, and their drawbacks.
Descriptive research is also known as Statistical Research. It primarily focuses on the use of descriptive research in educational settings, however the basic principles can be applied across disciplines. Both also go beyond the bounds of descriptive research and conduct further statistical procedures appropriate to their research questions, thus enabling them to make further recommendations about implementing computing technology in ways to support grassroots change and equitable practices within the schools.
The research can involve case studies, observation, survey and archival research to understand characteristics of a specific demographic group.
Because the human mind cannot extract the full import of a large mass of raw data, descriptive statistics are very important in reducing the data to manageable form. What is the best way to provide access to computer equipment in schools?
Rumors abound that young researchers must conduct quantitative research in order to get published in Educational Technology Research and Development and other prestigious journals in the field.
Research Methods and Statistics: The citations within this chapter provide ample evidence that descriptive research can indeed be published in prestigious journals. Participants or subjects may not be truthful or may not behave naturally when they know they are being observed.
The data collection allows for gathering in-depth information that may be either quantitative surveys or qualitative observations or case studies in nature. Descriptive studies report summary data such as measures of central tendency including the mean, median, mode, deviance from the mean, variation, percentage, and correlation between variables.
Quantitative and qualitative approaches. Descriptive studies have an important role in educational research. Surveys can be used by companies and organizations to study in beliefs, attitudes, behaviors and habits of members of a target audience, company or other organization.
One camp argues the benefits of a scientific approach to educational research, thus preferring the experimental, quantitative approach, while the other camp posits the need to recognize the unique human side of educational research questions and thus prefers to use qualitative research methodology.This is the essence of descriptive research in the field of psychology, and is the focus of this lesson.
Definition As the name implies, descriptive research methods are used when the researcher wants to describe specific behavior as it occurs in the environment.
Finally, like qualitative research, descriptive research aims to gather data without any manipulation of the research context.
In other words, descriptive research is also low on the "control or manipulation of research context" scale. The methods of collecting data for descriptive research can be employed singly or in various combinations, depending on the research questions at hand. Descriptive research often calls upon quasi-experimental research design (Campbell & Stanley, ).
Descriptive research methods help to understand the characteristics of a demographic group. Descriptive research is commonly used in social sciences to study characteristics or phenomenons. Also known as statistical research, researchers look into the frequency, average or other qualitative methods to understand a subject being studied.
demographic research concerned with describing and understanding patterns of basic life events and experiences such as birth, marriage, divorce, employment, migration, and death.
(one method of descriptive research). Descriptive research is “aimed at casting light on current issues or problems through a process of data collection that enables them to describe the situation more completely than was possible without employing this method.” In its essence, descriptive studies .Download